The kidneys are two organs that are found just below the rib cage on either side of the spine they are shaped like a bean and is the size of a clenched fist.
When the kidneys are healthy they usually filter about a half cup of blood per minute, and their functions are to remove waste and extra water to make urine. The urine then flows to the bladder via two tubes made up of muscles which known as the ureters, these tubes are located on the sides of the bladder
The best ways of catering to needs of the boomers are to understand what affects us socially, culturally and our personal values.
Our health and fitness mean a lot to us and because of this the fitness industry has shown much interest in this age group due to the global growth in health and fitness membership by this group.
There has been a large growth in health club membership and the boomer’s group is the group that is the largest supporters of these clubs and this is noted especially in the USA where it is said that women over 50 years old are the nation’s number one fastest group of exercises. Researchers have been telling us for a long time that exercise is good for lowering blood pressure losing weight keeping blood sugar in check, the boomers have taken this advice
There is a new perception of reaching old age ( boomers.) We boomers’ are more active and is taking an active role in our health and wellness well- being. We look forward to the future with much hope and optimism.
According to a recent US census estimates that those who are over 65 years will surpass those who are 5 years old by the year 2020 and as most boomers’ becomes more tech-savvy manufacturers and entrepreneurs needs to find new ways to cater to this age group and find new ways to meet our challenges yet allow us to live our lives fully.
Hepatitis A is a communicable disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is usually transmitted person-to-person through poor hygiene practices of not the washing of hands after using the bathroom and because of this the disease usually goes through the fecal-oral route or consumption of contaminated food or water.
Hepatitis A disease that does not result in chronic infection. Most adults with hepatitis A have symptoms, including fatigue, low appetite, stomach pain, nausea, and jaundice, light-colored stool dark urine unexplained weight loss that usually resolve within 2 months of infection; most children less than 6 years of age do not have symptoms or have an unrecognized infection.
Antibodies produced in response to hepatitis A infection last for life and protect against reinfection. The best way to prevent hepatitis A infection is to get vaccinated.
(HAV). The disease spreads through contact with an infected person’s stool. You can get it from
Eating food made by an infected person who did not wash their hands after using the bathroom
Drinking untreated water or eating food washed in untreated water
Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with an infected person’s stool
Having close contact with an infected person, such as through sex or caring for someone who is ill
There is no known treatment for hepatitis A infection. Because it’s a short-term viral infection that goes away on it’s own, medical intervention is focused on reducing the symptoms.
After a few weeks of rest, the symptoms of hepatitis A usually begin to improve. To ease your symptoms, you should:
maintain a healthy diet
drink plenty of water
With rest, and eating and drinking properly your body will most likely recover completely from hepatitis A in a matter of weeks or a few months. Usually, there are no negative long-term consequences of having the virus.
After contracting hepatitis A, your body builds immunity to the disease. A healthy immune system will prevent the disease from developing if you’re exposed to the virus again.
Preventing Hepatitis A
The best way to prevent getting hepatitis A apart from good hygiene practices is by getting the hepatitis A vaccine. This vaccine is given in a series of two injections, 6 to 12 months apart.
If you’re traveling to a country where hepatitis A transmission is more common, get your vaccination at least two weeks before traveling. It usually takes two weeks after the first injection for your body to start building immunity to hepatitis A.
If you’re not traveling for at least a year, it’s best to get both injections before leaving.
Hepatitis B is a virus is liver inflammation that is transmitted through bodily fluids by way of blood transfusion sexual activity, dialysis, childbirth tattooing body piercing and needle stick with an infected needle
The virus may also be transmitted by close contact. People who have contracted the HBV virus usually have symptoms like Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) fatigue, dark urine (tea color) nausea, vomiting, and light-colored stools.
Patients with chronic hepatitis B carry the virus for years and usually for life, allowing it to continue to cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. Advanced scarring of the liver is called cirrhosis. If the cirrhosis is severe, it can affect the ability of the liver to function and can lead to liver failure or death.
People who are chronic carriers of HBV are also at risk for liver cancer. For these reasons, scientists have developed medications to help reduce the risk of complications in people who are chronically infected with hepatitis B
In some people the disease goes away, Doctors have no idea why only some the HBV virus carriers experience this and for the others it becomes chronic.
This can lead to a chronic infection of the liver which causes the hardening of the liver. This process will lead to cirrhosis of the liver and some people get liver cancer.
Should anyone be infected with hepatitis B, do not be a blood, plasma, organ, tissue, or sperm donor
Be sure to alert anyone who will become in contact with your bodily fluid like your dentist, doctor or sex partner.
Hepatitis C is caused by the HCV virus and usually affects the liver. During the first stage of the infection, the symptoms are usually mild or there are no symptoms. Sometimes there is fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellowish skin. Infected
The hepatitis C virus stays in the liver in about 75 to 85% of those who are infected by the virus.
Hepatitis C becomes chronic after many years of being a carrier and can lead to significant complications
Hepatitis C infection that continues over many years can cause significant complications, such as:
Cirrhosis (the liver becomes scarred) this makes the liver hard to function.
Liver cancer. Cirrhosis can sometimes develop into liver cancer.
Liver Failure or advanced cirrhosis can cause the liver to stop functioning.
Protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by taking the following precautions:
Stop using illicit drugs, particularly if you inject them. If you use illicit drugs, seek help.
Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you choose to undergo piercing or tattooing, look for a reputable shop. Ask questions beforehand about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If employees won’t answer your questions, look for another shop.
Practice safer sex. Don’t engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners or with any partner whose health status is uncertain. Sexual transmission between monogamous couples may occur, but the risk is low.
Hepatitis D occurs only among people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus. Transmission requires contact with infectious blood.
Those who are at risk of contracting hepatitis D include intravenous drug abusers and people who have received multiple blood transfusions.
Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, and fatigue.
There are few treatments specifically for hepatitis D although different regimens may be tried. There is no known cure.
Hepatitis D virus (HDV)) virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) for reproducing.
HDV infection can only occur if the HBV virus is present
Hepatitis D virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. Transmission from mother to child is rear.
Currently, there is no effective antiviral treatment for hepatitis D.
Hepatitis D infection can be prevented by hepatitis B immunization.
A vaccine against hepatitis B along with being careful in handling bodily fluids is the only method to prevent HDV infection
The hepatitis E is a virus that infects the liver it causes the liver to swell up
Hepatitis E usually resolves on its own within four to six weeks. Treatment focuses on supportive care, rehydration, and rest.
The hepatitis E virus is usually transmitted through drinking water contaminated with fecal matter.
Symptoms include jaundice, lack of appetite, and nausea. In rare cases, it may progress to acute liver failure.
Hepatitis E can be dangerous for pregnant women or anyone with weak immune systems
The hepatitis E virus is caught through eating or drinking something that has been in contact with the stool of someone who has the virus.
Hepatitis E is more common in parts of the world with poor hygiene habits and where is an absence of clean water.
. It happens less often in developed countries where sewage plants kill the virus before it gets into the drinking supply.
You also can get hepatitis E if you eat undercooked meat from infected animals, such as pigs or deer. Less often, you can get the virus from raw shellfish that comes from tainted water.
Symptoms may start between 2-6 weeks and may include
Loss of appetite
Tea color urine
Rash and itching of the skin
Pain in the joints
Jaundice of the eyes and skin
Your doctor will use a test of the blood or a stool test to diagnose hepatitis E.
Remember to practice good hygiene in our daily living, wash our hands after using the bathroom, and after coming home from public places.
I have left a video of some easy exercises from Silver Sneakers, try and do them as often as possible.
We will be looking at diseases of the liver which is the largest organ in the body. The liver’s function is to clean or filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before distributing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines.
The liver is shaped like a cone dark red in color and weighs about 3 lbs and is located at the right side of the bode near the stomach. underneath the rib cage, The liver has many functions
Functions of the Liver
The liver holds about one pint of the body’s blood supply at any given time. The liver consists of 2 main lobes. Both are made up of 8 segments that consist of 1,000 small lobes. These lobules are connected to small tubes that connect with larger tubes to form the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct transports the bile made by the liver cells to the gallbladder the first part of the small intestine via the common bile duct.
All the blood leaving the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. The liver processes this blood and breaks down balances, and creates the nutrients and also metabolizes drugs into forms that are easier to use for the rest of the body or that are nontoxic.
The liver is said to have more than 500 functions but some of the more known ones are:-
Conversion of sugar (or glucose ) into glycogen and to balance and make glucose as needed. (glycogen can later be converted back to glucose for energy)
Regulation of blood vessels of amino acids which form the building blocks of proteins.
Processing hemoglobin for use as iron (which is stored in the liver.)
Conversion of poisonous ammonia-urea (urea is the end product of protein metabolism and is excreted in the urine)
Clearing the blood of drugs and other poison
Regulating blood clotting
Resisting infection by making immune factors and removing bacteria from the bloodstream.
Clearance of bilirubin, also from red blood cells. If there is an accumulation of bilirubin, the skin and eyes turn yellow.
When the liver has broken down harmful substances, its by-products are excreted into the bile or blood. Bile by-products enter the intestine and leave the body in the form of feces. Blood by-products are filtered out by the kidneys, and leave the body in the form of urine.
There are many diseases that can affect the liver we will look at a few of them:-
In the early stages of inflammation of the liver, the area becomes hot and painful. But an inflamed liver may cause you no discomfort at all, and people with inflammation generally do not feel it. If your liver disease is diagnosed and treated successfully at this stage, the inflammation may go away. Inflammation of the liver consists of hepatitis A, B, C, D, E,
Hepatitis A- a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus
Hep.B A serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus that’s easily preventable by a vaccine.
Hepatitis C An infection caused by a virus that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation.
Hepatitis D A serious liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus.
Hepatitis E A liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus.
If the inflamed liver is not treated it will start to scar, as it scars in excess the scar tissue grows and replaces the good tissues. This process is called fibrosis.
Scar tissue cannot do the work that what the healthy tissue can do and because of this the scar tissue can keep the blood from flowing and the more the scar tissue builds up the less work the liver is able to do or the good part of the liver has to work extra hard to make up for the bat part of the liver.
If the liver is treated at this stage there is a very good chance the liver can be healed. The liver has the ability to heal its self over a period of time.
Cirrhosis is the hard scarring tissue that replaces the soft healthy tissue. As cirrhosis becomes worse, the liver will have less healthy tissue. If cirrhosis is not treated, the liver will fail and will not be able to work well or at all.
Cirrhosis can lead to further complications including liver cancer. The symptoms of Cirrhosis are- You may bruise or bleed easily
Water may build up in the legs and abdomen.
The skin and eyes may take on a yellow color known as jaundice
There may be severe itching of the skin
The blood vessel leading to the liver may burst during the blood vessel becoming blocked.
The sensitivity and side effect to medications may increase.
Type 2 diabetes and resistance to insulin may develop.
Toxins may build up in your brain, causing problems with concentration, memory, sleeping, or other mental functions.
At this stage of the disease, the treatment is focused on keeping the disease from becoming worst or slowing it down.
END STAGE LIVER DISEASE (ESLD)
The end-stage liver disease shows signs of decompensation and is irreversible and cannot be treated with medication and only liver transplant can help. Decompensation includes hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleed, kidney
impairment, ascites, lung issues. The decompensated liver disease allows these patients to be prioritized on the transplant list.
Cancer that starts in the liver is called primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis and hepatitis B are the leading risk factors for primary liver cancer. But cancer can develop in the liver at any stage in the progression of liver disease.
Symptoms of liver cancer usually don’t show up until very late in the disease. Some if the symptoms include.
Unintentional weight loss.
Loss of appetite
Feeling full after eating a very small meal
Nausea and vomiting
An enlarged liver which can be felt on the right side under the ribs
An enlarged spleen felt like a mass under the ribs on the left side.
Pain in the abdomen felt on the right side near the shoulder blade.
Swelling of the abdomen caused by fluid build up.
Itching of the skin
Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
Some other symptoms can be fever swelling of the veins on your stomach which can be seen through the skin also bruising and bleeding of the abdomen.
To maintain a healthy Liver.
Cut down on alcohol intake.
If obese lose weight
Eat a balanced diet
The liver is a very important organ of the body it cleanses the blood for us to maintain a good healthy liver, we need to take the necessary action.
We need to eat healthy cut-out alcohol and cut down on the intake of red meat quit smoking and all unhealthy habits. The dash diet is known for its benefits to our health
Exercise is also very important for our well being and should be done at least 30 min. per day. I have left a link to Silver Sneakers for some exercise I do hope you enjoy them.