Chronic Kidney Disease –Maintaining good health

File:Human kidneys.jpg

What are the kidneys

The kidneys are two organs that are found just below the rib cage on either side of the spine they are shaped like a bean and is  the size of a clenched fist.

When the kidneys are healthy they usually filter about a half cup of blood per minute, and their functions are to remove waste and extra water to make urine. The urine then flows to the bladder via two tubes made up of muscles which known as the ureters, these tubes are located on the sides of the bladder

The importance of healthy kidneys.

Healthy functional kidneys remove extra fluid and waste from the body.  They also maintain a good balance of minerals, like sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus in the blood

Without the function of maintaining a healthy balance in the blood the nerves muscles and other tissues in your body would not work normally

The kidneys also produce hormones that help to

  • Control blood pressure
  • Make red blood cells
  • Keep bones strong and healthy

How do the kidneys work

Each kidney is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus

Each of your kidneys is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons.=(each of the functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine.) Each nephron includes a filter, called the glomerulus,=( a cluster of very thin blood vessels around the end of a kidney tubule, where waste products are filtered from the blood.)and a

tubule. The nephrons work through a process that requires two movements: the glomerulus filters the blood, and the tubule returns the important substances to your blood and removes wastes.

How glomerulus filters the blood

As blood flows into each nephron,  it enters the glomerulus. The walls of the glomerulus are very thin which allows very small pieces of waste and mostly water to pass into the tubule. Larger Pieces, such as much needed proteins and blood cells, stay in the blood vessel.

The separation of waste

A blood vessel runs beside the tubule and reabsorbs most of the water, nutrients, and minerals that the body needs excess acids are removed from the blood and the remaining fluid and waste in the tubule become urine.

How does blood flow through my kidneys?

Renal Artery is a large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the kidneys. The Renal Artery then branches into smaller blood vessels until the blood reaches the nephrons. In the nephron, your blood is filtered by the glomeruli =( a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule), the waste product is then removed from the blood and then comes off the kidneys through the renal vein.

In a day about 150 quarts of blood is filtered through the kidneys most of what is filtered returns to your blood by the tubules only about  1-2 quarts are passed from your body as urine The process of the circulating and filtering of the blood through the kidneys occurs many times in a day.

 

What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

There are five stages of kidney disease, however, the early stage of the disease may not be detected as there is usually no symptoms until it’s almost too late.

The test to detect kidney disease in its early stages is called glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

There are many causes of kidney disease but the two main causes are high blood pressure and diabetes.

These two diseases are responsible for up to two-thirds of kidney disease cases. So if either of these is present it would be wise to get a GFR test done.

Diabetes is caused when the blood sugar is too high this then damages

To the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves and the eyes.

High blood pressure is a disease that occurs when the pressure of the blood against the walls of the blood vessel increases. Uncontrolled Blood pressure is the leading cause of heart attack, strokes and kidney disease.

Chronic kidney disease occurs when the kidneys are damaged and the ability to function properly is decreased, waste can then build up to high levels in the blood and may cause some symptoms like.

  • Anemia (low blood count)
  • Weak bones
  • Poor nutritional health
  • Nerve damage
  • High blood pressure.

Kidney disease not detected early cause the disease to progress which may eventually lead to chronic kidney failure and at this time dialysis or a kidney transplant is required to stay alive.

 

It is said that over 30 million American adults have chronic kidney disease and millions of others are at risk, Early detection is the key to preventing the o kidney disease from progressing.

 

The major cause of death of patients with CDK is heart disease

 

The best estimate of kidney function is the Glomerular filtration (GFR)

 

Uncontrolled Hypertension causes CKD and CKD causes hypertension

A persistent presence of protein in the urine means CKD is present.

Those who have the disease diabetes, high blood pressure or family history of kidney failure are considered high risk

People who are considered to be of high risk are  African Americans, American Indians, Seniors Hispanics and Pacific Islanders.

Testing the urine for albumin and serum creatinine also checking the blood pressure are two simple test that can be done to detect CKD

What causes CKD?

Other conditions that affect the kidneys are:

 

A group of disease that causes Inflammation and causes damage to the kidneys filtering units these diseases are called Glomerulonephritis. This is the third most common type of kidney disease.

 

Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder which causes large cyst to form in the kidneys and damage the tissues. These cysts are nonfunctioning they range from microscopic to enormous they cause damage to the normal tubules causing them to become useless.

 

An abnormality that occurs as a baby develops in the mother’s womb, this maybe a narrowing in the tubes preventing normal outflow of urine and this causes the urine to back up in the kidney the kidneys will then become infected and this action causes damage to the kidneys.

Diseases that affect the immune system example Lupus

Anything that causes obstruction like Kidney Stones, tumors or enlarge prostate gland that can develop in men

Repeated urinary infections.

What are the symptoms of CKD?

There is hardly any severe symptoms until the disease is in the late stage of damage:

  • Having less energy
  • Having trouble concentrating
  • Not having  an appetite
  • Having  trouble  falling asleep
  • Muscle cramping at night
  • Swollen feet and ankles
  • Puffiness around the eyes, especially in the morning
  • Itchy skin and dry skin
  • Frequent passing of urine especially at night.

Anyone can get chronic kidney disease and at any age. Some people are considered more at risk than others to develop kidney disease. You may have an increased risk for kidney disease if you:

  • have diabetes
  • have high blood pressure
  • have a family history of kidney failure
  • are older
  • belong to an ethnic group of the population that has a high rate of diabetes or high blood pressure, such as African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians.

 

 

 

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Health and Wellness for Seniors

The best ways of catering to needs of the boomers are to understand what affects us socially, culturally and our personal values.

Our health and fitness mean a lot to us and because of this the fitness industry has shown much interest in this age group due to the global growth in health and fitness membership by this group.

There has been a large growth in health club membership and the boomer’s group is the group that is the largest supporters of these clubs and this is noted especially in the USA where it is said that women over 50 years old are the nation’s number one fastest group of exercises. Researchers have been telling us for a long time that exercise is good for lowering blood pressure losing weight keeping blood sugar in check, the boomers have taken this advice

As we boomers reach retirement age there is a focus on living longer and delaying the visible and physical effects of aging.

Because of these boomers view exercise as one of the keys for living a longer, healthier and happier life.

What is also important to the boomers is not just having a membership to a gym but it is the type of services offered by these gyms, we need programs that cater to our needs, not just high impact exercises and heavy weight lifting.

The Boomers Importance

The boomer generation grew up in a time that was considered to be a privileged time, it was the postwar time and it is said the economy was good. It was the time of great changes this generation was the first through a time of new inventions and systems.

The boomers were considered to be the most educated, influential and prosperous generation and are said to be responsible for half of the discretionary spending in the USA The lowest level of unemployment are among this group.

Because of these facts, producers and marketers covet the business of the boomers in every area of goods and services.

Boomers are expected to live long into their 80-90+and live more independent lives, a lot of research is taking place to create new devices and different vitamins and products in order to facilitate this new era.

Healthy Diet

Boomer has become more aware of what we are eating because we are more informed maybe because of illness that affects us as we age.

Because of these ailments like high blood pressure high cholesterol we are paying attention to our diet and food choices more than the previous generation.

Since so much of the food available is not very healthy, whether it comes from a fast-food restaurant or the neighborhood grocery store.

All these concerns come from the unhealthy use of using additives, insecticides and other unnatural products during production and preparation

There was a survey taken that indicated that four out of five boomers are more food conscious, and pay more attention to ingredients on labels. It is also noted that people on a whole are trending in buying organic food items.

Many boomers seek improved health as the primary reason for their efforts to keep fit. And some of us want to be around to see our grandchildren to have fun with them.

Looking good and appearing younger is a huge factor to this generation of boomers as we are living working with younger people

Copy and paste the link below for some easy exercise https://www.facebook.com/brightside/videos/686717245009489/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Health and wellness for Boomers

 

There is a new perception of reaching old age ( boomers.) We boomers’ are more active and is taking an active role in our health and wellness well- being. We look forward to the future with much hope and optimism.

According to a recent US census estimates that those who are over 65 years will surpass those who are 5 years old by the year 2020 and as most boomers’ becomes more tech-savvy manufacturers and entrepreneurs needs to find new ways to cater to this age group and find new ways to meet our challenges yet allow us to live our lives fully.

BOOMERS AND THEIR HEALTH GOALS

Boomers are eating healthier than before weather is because we are taking better care of ourselves or we that we are more informed.

We are getting more exercise as we find out that exercise not only strengthens our bones and joints but exercise helps us to maintain our mobility.

Our quality of sleep is improved maybe not the length I don’t think we need the length of sleep but improving quality of sleep.

We treat chronic illness quicker than before. We listen out bodies and take care of whatever is causing us to be ill.

Boomers balance their mental wellness by taking everything in stride knowing that worrying never solved anything and only makes us sick.

Improve our social connections sometimes by doing some social work, joining an organization or doing some community work or being a part of some group.

We seem to have been overlooked by the food industry in the  catering to the younger generation and the boomers are neglected  in regards to  our needs and preference  in food and beverages, but I think companies would be wise in paying attention to this age group after all boomers’ will be about 18% of the population by 2020 and we are living longer.

Boomers are likely to reshape the experience of aging, some believe the boomers’ will transform the lifestyle and experiences of the aged in many ways that we are now beginning to understand.

The new 50 and over years older will live differently we make more healthy choices when we eat, less processed food and consume fresher foods. Living a more healthy lifestyle will drive this age group. Everything most of us do is geared towards making good decisions regarding our health and wellness.

The boomers’ have been very influential in their lifestyle to be more active and healthy and I think because of this influence has caused a shift in the society as a whole.

The pursuit is not unique to this older generation, because of us boomers’ not just being satisfied with just getting by in our daily lives but by making changes in the culture that will enable us to live better lives.

Wellness is said to be when our dreams, wishes, and hopes come true without discomfort, without conflict or force and do not cause their other desires to be cast aside.

As we the older generations continue to seek out ways to better ourselves or to improve the quality of our lives we will continue to affect the food and drink industry in new ways.

As we boomers’ continue to find ways to better ourselves and to improve the quality of ourlives changes will be made to facilitate us and our needs.

Time is very important to boomers’ (as you can imagine ) this makes it even more important to us to make conscious decisions in planning and making choices that reflect our values and hopes.

We older consumers want when we spend our money we get real value some of us are adventurous and are willing to try new things so that’s another door opened to those who cater to us.

Boomers now live longer than previously but we still get sick with the illness that affects the aged and even though we are getting technology savvy we use it when and how we want to. (for me I am very cautious )

Even though we are considered to be the wealthiest generation yet we are the least prepared for retirement. Almost 10,000 boomers’ becomes eligible for retirement daily and there is constant need to lead us to better retirement and long term health and wellness.

In order to find a better path for boomers’ for long-term health and wellness and retirement, it is very important to better understand what motivates and excite the boomers’ generation.

The boomers’ generation

The phenomenon of the baby boomers’ started in the era of the hippie movement, Woodstock, the Vietnam war, much demonstration and unrest. This was the time when these teenagers started questioning their parents values and views.

The events and circumstances that took place on a global scale at the time shaped  and influenced the boomers’ perspective on important issues like politics religion, personal finance and health and wellness

Boomers tend to adapt easily and are very optimistic and understand that we are afforded great opportunities to bring the change we believe that we can accomplish anything we put our mind to.

Boomers Retirement

Boomers have changed every culture they have changed cultures of the youth, corporate and we are redefining the retirement culture. The boomers’ are very active and like to experience new things.

But even though boomers’ have so much influence on the culture they are still not adequately prepared for retirement it is reported that just 24 percent of boomers’ are confident that they are will have enough saved to take them through the retirement years. It is said that one in four have saved less that $5.000 and 45 percent of all boomers’ have not saved anything at all.

Because of these realities boomers’ are waiting longer to retire for some it has become a necessity and for health care which has become so expensive that without the healthcare benefits from their job they could not afford health care others work for a sense of purpose that having a job gives them.

Boomers are into the new technology we have been using technology to better our lives We tend to visit health sites more than the average internet user because of this we are very informed and consider the information from these websites are very helpful and a good resource that help us to ask the right questions when we visit the doctor.

 

Boomers are educating themselves in the new and different solutions open to them as the medical field gets more technical

there are different methods to help them for instance instead of having an invasive surgery there might be the option to have a minimal invasive or an autoscopic surgery and because of the knowledge gained they can make a more informed decision .

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Personal health and wellness — Maintaining Good Health

I am looking into the overall health and wellness for us, Just what does personal health and wellness really means to us.

According to google dictionary wellness is the state of being in good health, especially as we  actively pursue our  goals.

My thoughts are wellness is not just free from physical illness but wellness addresses the broader issues of our overall health, physical, mental and spiritual.

It is the way we live our everyday lives. It is living a lifestyle that balances our growth that last for a lifetime.

Maintaining the highest level of wellness is extremely important in us living a better quality of life. Our wellness matters as it does  not only affect us and our emotions but it also affects those around us.

Usually what’s going on in our mind reflects in our body so in order to improve our well-being we must have a mindset change.

As long as we are living on this earth things will never be perfect this is not a perfect world, there will always challenge, problems of one kind or another and if we are not careful we will wear ourselves out trying to overcome challenges and solve problems.

We need to stop being so busy take some time for ourselves stop allowing people to con us to meet their needs and wants. We need to take too’s out of our vocabulary, too tired, too busy etc.

We are made in the image of God, so let us love and appreciate ourselves If we don’t love ourselves who will? If we love ourselves everything else will come together and fall into place.

Let’s be ourselves most persons we meet don’t know what we have been through, what mess we have had to overcome to be where we are. Focus on US the things that make us happy set new goals for ourselves. Never stop learning

We need to stop comparing ourselves in a negative way to others, negative thoughts usually become reality, Think positive spend our time aspirating to reach your goals.

Let us strive towards a better life for ourselves with more confidence and sense of well– being knowing that we are unique and we can make a difference in our corner

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Hepatitis Liver Inflammation –Maintaining good health

 

Hepatitis A is a communicable disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is usually transmitted person-to-

person through poor hygiene practices of not the washing of hands after using the bathroom and because of this the disease usually goes through the fecal-oral route or consumption of contaminated food or water.

Hepatitis A disease that does not result in chronic infection. Most adults with hepatitis A have symptoms, including fatigue, low appetite, stomach pain, nausea, and jaundice, light colored stool dark urine unexplained weight loss that usually resolve within 2 months of infection; most children less than 6 years of age do not have symptoms or have an unrecognized infection.

Antibodies produced in response to hepatitis A infection last for life and protect against reinfection. The best way to prevent hepatitis A infection is to get vaccinated.

(HAV). The disease spreads through contact with an infected person’s stool. You can get it from

  • Eating food made by an infected person who did not wash their hands after using the bathroom
  • Drinking untreated water or eating food washed in untreated water
  • Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with an infected person’s stool
  • Having close contact with an infected person, such as through sex or caring for someone who is ill

There is no known treatment for hepatitis A infection. Because it’s a short-term viral infection that goes away on its own, medical intervention is focused on reducing the symptoms.

After a few weeks of rest, the symptoms of hepatitis A usually begin to improve. To ease your symptoms, you should:

  • avoid alcohol
  • maintain a healthy diet
  • drink plenty of water

With rest, and eating and drinking properly your body will most likely recover completely from hepatitis A in a matter of weeks or a few months. Usually, there are no negative long-term consequences of having the virus.

After contracting hepatitis A, your body builds immunity to the disease. A healthy immune system will prevent the disease from developing if you’re exposed to the virus again.

Preventing Hepatitis A

The best way to prevent getting hepatitis A apart from good hygiene practices is by getting the hepatitis A vaccine. This vaccine is given in a series of two injections, 6 to 12 months apart.

If you’re traveling to a country where hepatitis A transmission is more common, get your vaccination at least two weeks before traveling. It usually takes two weeks after the first injection for your body to start building immunity to hepatitis A.

If you’re not traveling for at least a year, it’s best to get both injections before leaving.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a virus is liver inflammation that is transmitted through bodily fluids by way of blood transfusion sexual activity, dialysis, childbirth tattooing body piercing and needle stick with an infected needle

The virus may also be transmitted by close contact. People who have contracted the HBV virus usually have symptoms like Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) fatigue, dark urine (tea color) nausea, vomiting and light colored stools.

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Patients with chronic hepatitis B carry the virus for years and usually for life, allowing it to continue to cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. Advanced scarring of the liver is called cirrhosis. If the cirrhosis is severe, it can affect the ability of the liver to function, and can lead to liver failure or death.

People who are chronic carriers of HBV are also at risk for liver cancer. For these reasons, scientists have developed medications to help reduce the risk of complications in people who are chronically infected with hepatitis B

 

In some people the disease goes away, Doctors have no idea why only some the HBV virus carriers experience this and for the others it becomes chronic.

This can lead to a chronic infection of the liver which cause the hardening of the liver. This process will lead to cirrhosis of the liver and some people get liver cancer.

Should anyone be infected with hepatitis B do not be a blood, plasma, organ, tissue, or sperm donor.

Be sure to alert anyone who will become in contact with your bodily fluid like your dentist, doctor or sex partner.

 

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is caused by the HCV virus and usually affects the liver. During the first stage of the infection the symptoms are usually mild or there are no symptoms. Sometimes there is fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellowish skin. Infected

The hepatitis C virus stays in the liver in about 75 to 85% of those who are infected by the virus.

Hepatitis C becomes chronic after many years of being a carrier and can lead to significant complications

Hepatitis C infection that continues over many years can cause significant complications, such as:

Cirrhosis (the liver becomes scarred) this makes the liver hard to function.

Liver cancer. Cirrhosis can sometimes develop into liver cancer.

Liver Failure or advanced cirrhosis can cause the liver to stop functioning.

Prevention

Protect yourself from hepatitis C infection by taking the following precautions:

  • Stop using illicit drugs, particularly if you inject them. If you use illicit drugs, seek help.
  • Be cautious about body piercing and tattooing. If you choose to undergo piercing or tattooing, look for a reputable shop. Ask questions beforehand about how the equipment is cleaned. Make sure the employees use sterile needles. If employees won’t answer your questions, look for another shop.
  • Practice safer sex. Don’t engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners or with any partner whose health status is uncertain. Sexual transmission between monogamous couples may occur, but the risk is low.

 

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D occurs only among people who are infected with the Hepatitis B virus. Transmission requires contact with infectious blood.

Those who are at risk of contracting hepatitis D include intravenous drug abusers and people who have received multiple blood transfusions.

Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, and fatigue.

There are few treatments specifically for hepatitis D although different regimens may be tried. There is no known cure.

Hepatitis D virus (HDV)) virus that requires hepatitis B virus (HBV) for reproducing.

HDV infection can only occur if the HBV virus is present

Hepatitis D virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. Transmission from mother to child is rear.

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Currently there is no effective antiviral treatment for hepatitis D.

Hepatitis D infection can be prevented by hepatitis B immunization.

A vaccine against hepatitis B along with being careful in handling bodily fluids is the only method to prevent HDV infection

Hepatitis E

The hepatitis E is a virus that infects the liver it causes the liver to swell up

Hepatitis E usually resolves on its own within four to six weeks. Treatment focuses on supportive care, re hydration, and rest.

The hepatitis E virus is usually transmitted through drinking water contaminated with fecal matter.

Symptoms include jaundice, lack of appetite, and nausea. In rare cases, it may progress to acute liver failure.

Hepatitis E can be dangerous for pregnant women or anyone with weak immune systems

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Causes

The hepatitis E virus is caught through eating or drinking something that has been in contact with the stool of someone who has the virus.

Hepatitis E is more common in parts of the world with poor hygiene habits and where is an absence of clean water.

. It happens less often in developed countries where sewage plants kill the virus before it gets into the drinking supply.

You also can get hepatitis E if you eat under cooked meat from infected animals, such as pigs or deer. Less often, you can get the virus from raw shellfish that comes from tainted water.

Symptoms

Symptoms may start between 2-6 weeks and may include

  • Mild fever
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nauseous
  • Throwing up
  • Stomach pain
  • Tea color urine
  • Light-colored poop
  • Rash and itching of the skin
  • Pain in the joints
  • Jaundice of the eyes and skin

Your doctor will use a test of the blood or a stool test to diagnose hepatitis E.

 

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Liver Disease and Disorders–Maintaining good Health

 

Anatomy of the liver and biliary system with blood vessels

We will be looking at diseases of the liver which is the largest organ in the body. The liver’s function is to clean or filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before distributing it to the rest of the body. The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines.

The liver is shaped like a cone dark red in color and weighs about 3 lbs and is located at the right side of the bode near the stomach. underneath the rib cage, The liver has many functions

Healthy Liver

  • Functions of the Liver

The liver holds about one pint of the body’s blood supply at any given time. The liver consists of 2 main lobes. Both are made up of 8 segments that consist of 1,000 small lobes.  These lobules are connected to small tubes that connect with larger tubes to form the common hepatic duct. The common hepatic duct transports the bile made by the liver cells to the gallbladder the first part of the small intestine via the common bile duct.

All the blood leaving the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. The liver processes this blood and breaks down balances, and creates the nutrients and also metabolizes drugs into forms that are easier to use for the rest of the body or that are nontoxic.

The liver is said to have more than 500 functions but some of the more known ones are:-

    • Conversion of sugar  (or glucose ) into glycogen and to balance and make glucose as needed.(glycogen can later be converted back to glucose for energy)
    • Regulation of blood vessels of  amino acids which form the building blocks of proteins.
    • Processing hemoglobin for use as iron  (which is stored in the liver.)
    • Conversion of poisonous ammonia urea (urea is the end product of protein metabolism and is excreated in the urin)
    • Clearing the blood of drugs and other poision
    • Regulating blood clotting
    • Restiting infection by making immune factors and removing bacteria from the blood stream.

Clearance of bilirubin, also from red blood cells. If there is an accumulation of bilirubin, the skin and eyes turn yellow.

When the liver has broken down harmful substances, its by-products are excreted into the bile or blood. Bile by-products enter the intestine and leave the body in the form of feces. Blood by-products are filtered out by the kidneys, and leave the body in the form of urine.

 

There are  many diseses that can affect the liver  we lill look at a few of them:-

INFLAMATION

In the early stages of inflamation of the liver the area becomes hot and painful. But an inflamed liver may cause you no discomfort at all, and people with inflammation generally do not feel it.  If your liver disease is diagnosed and treated successfully at this stage, the inflammation may go away. Inflamation of the liver consist of hepatitise A,B,C,D,E,

Hepatitise A-  highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus

Hep.B A serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus that’s easily preventable by a vaccine.

Hepatitis C An infection caused by a virus that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation.

Hepatitis D A serious liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus.

Hepatitis E A liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus.

FIBROSIS

If the inflamed liver is not treated it will start to scar, as it scars in excess the scar tissue grows and replaces the good tissues. This process is called fibrosis.

Scar tissue cannot do the work that what the healthy tissue can do and because of this the scar tissue can keep the blood from flowing and the more the scar tissue  builds up the less work the liver is able to do or the good part of the liver has to work extra hard to make up for the bat part of the liver.

If the liver is treated at this stage there is a very good chance the liver can be healed. The liver hast he ability to heal its self over a period of time.

CIRRHOSIS

Cirrhosis is the hard scarring tissue that replaces the soft healthy tissue. As cirrhosis becomes worse, the liver will have a less healthy tissue. If cirrhosis is not treated, the liver will fail and will not be able to work well or at all.

Cirrhosis can lead to further complications including liver cancer. The symptoms of Cirrhosis are- You may bruise or bleed easily

Water may build up in the legs and abdomen.

The skin and eyes may take on a yellow color known as jaundice

There may be severe itching of the skin

The blood vessel leading to the liver may burst during the blood vessel becoming blocked.

The sensitivity and side effect to medications may increase.

Type 2 diabetes and the resistance to insulin may develope.

Toxins may build up in your brain, causing problems with concentration, memory, sleeping, or other mental functions.

At this stage of the disease, the treatment is focused on keeping the disease from becoming worst or slowing it down.

END STAGE LIVER DISEASE (ESLD)

The end-stage liver disease shows signs of decompensation and is irreversible and cannot be treated with medication and only liver transplant can help.Decompensation includes hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleed, kidney

impairment, ascites, lung issues. The decompensated liver disease allows these patients to be prioritized on the transplant list.

LIVER CANCER

Cancer that starts in the liver is called primary liver cancer. Cirrhosis and hepatitis B are leading risk factors for primary liver cancer. But cancer can develop in the liver at any stage in the progression of liver disease.

Symptoms of liver cancer usually don’t show up until very late in the disease. Some if the symptoms include.

Unintentional weight loss.

Loss of appetite

Feeling full after eating a very small meal

Nausea and vomiting

An enlarged liver which can be felt on the right side under the ribs

An enlarged spleen felt like a mass under the ribs on the left side.

Pain in the abdomen felt on the right side near the shoulder blade.

Swelling of the abdomen caused by fluid build up.

Itching of the skin

Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)

Some other symptoms can be fever swelling of the veins on your stomach which can be seen through the skin also bruising and bleeding of the abdomen.

To maintain a healthy Liver.

Cut down on a alcohol intake.

If obese lose weight

Eat a balanced diet

exercise about 30min per day

 

 

 

 

 

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Mueller Ultra Kettle Review

 

 

Mueller Ultra SpeedBoil Cordless Electric Kettle Glass Tea, Coffee Pot 1.8 Liter Cordless with LED Light, Borosilicate Glass BPA-Free with Auto Shut-Off and Boil-Dry Protection

 

After causing 3 stove top glass kettle to be destroyed by forgetting them on the fire while my attentions were occupied elsewhere (sometimes this happens to us ) I decided to get a kettle that will turn its self off after the liquid had reached boiling point.

After searching and looking at a number of kettles I decided on the Mueller Ultra Kettle model # M995 –110-120v

it is made from Borosilicate Glass which resists scratching and scuffing. It is  10x 9 x 7.5 inches and weighs 2.01 lbs light weight and has a sturdy handle which is Heat-Resistant Anti-Slip Grip Handle, no worries of it slipping out of your hands or getting burned while holding it. 100% BPA Free and will not contaminate liquids. The automatic shut-off mechanism activates within 30 seconds after the water is fully boiling.

 

It has a  bright LED’s which indicate the kettle is heating. It holds a maximum capacity of 1.8L, the water comes to a full boil within minutes and is ready to use iti is  Completely Cordless when off the base, the Mueller Ultra Kettle allows you easy and unobstructed pouring. 360° Clear Rotational Glass Body is perfect for precise measuring of water.

 

This is a great product.  it has the base that connects to the electrical outlet and the kettle sits on top of this base (so the kettle doesn’t need a power cable attached to it).  the water does not have a metallic taste The base has lights and when the kettle is on the lights reflects through the glass kettle giving it a very nice effect.

The cover of the kettle does not completely comes off so cleaning it can be a bit difficult but soaking it overnight in some white vinegar and water will get rid of any scaling.

 

This kettle is by no means perfect I am sure there are better ones out there but  for the price this is a great buy and I would recommend this kettle to any one.

For me this is the perfect solution for my forgetfulness and being preoccupied it is just what I needed

 

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Pulmonary Hypertension(lung disease affecting blood vessel)–Maintaining good health

 

 

 

 

Let’s look at the other Lung disease that affects the blood vessels In my last article we looked at pulmonary embolism(https://healthandwellnessforboomers.com/lung-disease-affecting-the-blood-vessel-maintaining-good-health )and in this post, we take a look at pulmonary hypertension

What is pulmonary hypertension?
Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is high blood pressure in the heart-to-lung system that delivers fresh (oxygenated) blood to the heart while returning used(oxygen-depleted) blood back to the lungs. Pulmonary blood pressure reflects the pressure the heart exerts to pump blood from the heart through the arteries of the lungs. In other words, it focuses on the pressure of the blood flow in your lungs.

Systemic high blood pressure can cause the heart to work harder to deliver blood to the body, pulmonary hypertension can occur when the arteries in the lungs narrow and thicken, slowing the flow of blood through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. As a result, the pressure in your arteries rises as your heart works harder to try to force the blood through. Heart failure occurs when the heart becomes too weak to pump enough blood to the lungs.

The lungs and heart work together to carry oxygen throughout the body. The heart is a
muscle made up of two halves that pumps the blood. Deoxygenated ( oxygen-depleted blood)returns from the rest of the body, it first goes into the right side of the heart, which pumps it into the lungs. The lungs take carbon dioxide from the blood which the body releases as you exhale and replace it with oxygen that you have inhaled.

After the blood picks up the oxygen, it is considered “oxygenated” again and is ready to go to other areas of the body. The blood then travels from the lungs into the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart then pumps the blood to the rest of the body. This process
starts over again with each heart beat.

The right side of the heart is smaller and weaker than the left side because it only pumps blood through the lungs which are normally a low-pressure system. The left side of the heart is more muscular as it has to pump blood throughout the rest of the body, against gravity and up to your head and all the way to your toes and back again

Common diagnostic tests include an echocardiograph, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram (EKG) and catheterization of the right heart. Discovering the underlying cause may involve a chest CT scan, chest MRI, lung function tests, the polysomnogram (PSG), lung ventilation/perfusion scan and blood tests

Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension
Early symptoms include:

  • Shortness of breath during routine activity
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Racing heartbeat
  • Pain in upper right side of the abdomen
  • Decreased appetite

Later symptoms include:

  • Feeling light-headed, especially during physical activity
  • Fainting
  • Swelling in the ankles or legs
  • Bluish lips or skin

 

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There five groups that fall under pulmonary hypertension

Group 1 (PAH) pulmonary arterial hypertension is caused by drugs or toxins or by conditions such as connective tissue disease, HIV infection, liver disease, congenital heart disease .sickle disease, schistosomiasis ( infestation of the liver by parasites) or by conditions that affect the veins and small blood vessels of the lungs PAH can also be inherited

Group 2 pulmonary hypertension is associated with heart disease (the left side) mitral valve disease or long-term high blood pressure this is the most cause of pulmonary hypertention.

Group 3 Pulmonary hypertension is related to lung problems like COPD and intersitial lung disease( Rheumatoid arthritis, Mixed connective tissue disease sjogren’s syndrome( the imune system attacks its own fealthy cells)as well as sleep  apnea and other sleep breathing disorders.

Group 4 is caused  by blood clots in the lungs or general clotting disorders.

Group 5  is triggered by other disorders such as disease or conditions of the blood such as polycythaemia ( an abnormally increased concentration hemoglobin in the blood caused by either a reduction of plasma volume or an increase in red blood cells number,) metabolic disorders such as thyroid andglycogen storage disease; and other conditions such as kidney disease and tumors that press on the pulmonary arteries.

There is no known cure for pulmonary hypertension but one with the disease can still live an active and fulfilling life by following the doctors advice and by working with your doctor the symptoms can be managed. be careful about taking over the counter medication it would be wise to consult with the doctor as some of these medicatin can worsen the symptons.

 

Some life style changes are suggestd to help in the control of the symptoms

No smoking if addicted to cigarette the doctor will be able to help as there are progrmms and products to help break the addiction.

Eat healthy have a variety of fruits, vegetables, lean meat, poultry, fish (salmon, sardines or fatty fish very rich in omega 3) low fat or fatfree milk ( a low fat, sodium, cholestrol and sugar diet)

Maintain a healthy weight be on the lookout for rapid weight gains. A rapid weight gain could be a sign or worsening of the condition

incoporate some easy exercise in your daily lifestyles. Talk to your doctor about the level of exercise that should be done. Avoide straining or lifting heavy objects and rest when needed

.Avoide sitting in a hot tub or sauna, or takinglong baths, which will lower your blood pressure

If travelling by air be very cautious extra oxygen may be needed because of the high altitude

Get support for the anxiety and stress of living with pulmonary hypertension. Talk with your healthcare team, or ask for a referral to a counselor. A support group for people living with pulmonary hypertension can be invaluable in learning how to cope with the illness.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Lung Disease Affecting the Blood Vessel–Maintaining Good Health

 

We will be looking at lung desease atha affect the blood vessels The right side of the heart receives low-oxygen blood from the veins.  It pumps blood into he lungs through the pulmonary arteries . These blood vessels can suffer from disease as well.

  • Pulmonary embolisim
  • Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary embolisim other wise called deep vein thrombosis is a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in the lungs

in most cases this blockage is caused by blood clots that  travel to the lungs from the legs or from other parts of the body.

These clots blocks the flow to the lungs, this disease can be life threatening ,but with prompt treatment the risk of death is greatly reduce. But by taking measure to prevent blood clots in our les will help to reduce the risk of plumonary embolisim

 

The symptoms of Pulmonary embolism  can vary greatly, depending on how much of your lung is involved, the size of the clots, and whether you have underlying lung or heart disease.

Some of the common signs that are associated with pulmonary embolosim are

  • Shortness of breath. This symptom typically appears suddenly and always gets worse with exertion.
  • Chest pain. You may feel like you’re having a
    heart attack. The pain may become worse when you breathe deeply  cough, eat, bend or stoop. The pain will get worse with
    exertion but won’t go away when you rest.
  • Cough. The cough may produce bloody or blood-streaked sputum.

Some other signs that can acompany this disease are

  • Leg pain or swelling, or both, usually in the calf
  • Clammy or discolored skin (cyanosis)
  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating
  • Rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness

 

THE CAUSES

 

Pulmonary embolism occurs when a clump of
material, most often a blood clot, gets wedged into an artery in your
lungs. These blood clots most commonly come from the deep veins of your
legs. This condition is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

In most cases, multiple clots are involved but not necessarily all at
once. The portions of lung served by each blocked artery are robbed of
blood and may die. This is known as pulmonary infarction. This makes it
more difficult for your lungs to provide oxygen to the rest of your
body.

Occasionally, blockages in the blood vessels are caused by substances other than blood clots, such as:

  • Fat from the marrow of a broken long bone
  • Collagen or other tissue
  • Part of a tumor
  • Air bubbles

Blood clot in leg vein

Although anyone can develop blood clots and subsequent pulmonary embolism, certain factors can increase your risk.

Medical history

We are at a higher risk if we  or any of our family members have had
venous blood clots or pulmonary embolism in the past. This may be due to
inherited disorders that affect blood, making it more prone to clot.

In addition, some medical conditions and treatments put us at risk, such as:

  • Heart disease. Cardiovascular disease, specifically heart failure, makes clot formation more likely.
  • Cancer. Certain cancers — especially
    pancreatic, ovarian and lung cancers, and many cancers with metastasis —
    can increase levels of substances that help blood clot, and
    chemotherapy further increases the risk. Women with a personal or family
    history of breast cancer who are taking tamoxifen or raloxifene also
    are at higher risk of blood clots.
  • Surgery. Surgery is one of the leading causes
    of problem blood clots. For this reason, medication to prevent clots may
    be given before and after major surgery such as joint replacement.

Prolonged immobility

Blood clots are more likely to form during periods of inactivity, such as:

  • Bed rest. Being confined to bed for an extended
    period after surgery, a heart attack, leg fracture, trauma or any
    serious illness makes you more vulnerable to blood clots. When the lower
    extremities are horizontal for long periods, the flow of venous blood
    slows and blood can pool in the legs.
  • Long trips. Sitting in a cramped position
    during lengthy plane or car trips slows blood flow in the legs, which
    contributes to the formation of clots.

Other risk factors

  • Smoking. For reasons that aren’t
    well-understood, tobacco use predisposes some people to blood clot
    formation, especially when combined with other risk factors.
  • Being overweight. Excess weight increases the risk of blood clots — particularly in women who smoke or have high blood pressure.
  • Supplemental estrogen. The estrogen in birth
    control pills and in hormone replacement therapy can increase clotting
    factors in your blood, especially if you smoke or are overweight.
  • Pregnancy. The weight of the baby pressing on
    veins in the pelvis can slow blood return from the legs. Clots are more
    likely to form when blood slows or pools.

 

Complications

Pulmonary embolism can be
life-threatening. About one-third of people with undiagnosed and
untreated pulmonary embolism don’t survive. When the condition is
diagnosed and treated promptly, however, that number drops dramatically.

Pulmonary embolism can also lead to pulmonary hypertension, a
condition in which the blood pressure in your lungs and in the right
side of the heart is too high. When you have obstructions in the
arteries inside your lungs, your heart must work harder to push blood
through those vessels. This increases the blood pressure within these
vessels and the right side of the heart, which can weaken your heart.

In rare cases, small emboli occur frequently and develop over time,
resulting in chronic pulmonary hypertension, also known as chronic
thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

 

Prevention

Preventing clots in the deep veins in our legs (deep vein thrombosis) will help prevent pulmonary embolism.
For this reason, most hospitals are aggressive about taking measures to
prevent blood clots, including:

  • Blood thinners (anticoagulants). These
    medications are often given to people at risk of clots before and after
    an operation — as well as to people admitted to the hospital with a
    heart attack, stroke or complications of cancer.
  • Compression stockings. Compression stockings
    steadily squeeze your legs, helping your veins and leg muscles move
    blood more efficiently. They offer a safe, simple and inexpensive way to
    keep blood from stagnating during and after general surgery.
  • Leg elevation. Elevating your legs when possible and during the night also can be very effective. Raise the bottom of your bed 4 to 6 inches with blocks or books.
  • Physical activity. Moving as soon as possible
    after surgery can help prevent pulmonary embolism and hasten recovery
    overall. This is one of the main reasons your nurse may push you to get
    up, even on your day of surgery, and walk despite pain at the site of
    your surgical incision.
  • Pneumatic compression. This treatment uses
    thigh-high or calf-high cuffs that automatically inflate with air and
    deflate every few minutes to massage and squeeze the veins in your legs
    and improve blood flow.

Prevention while traveling

The risk of blood clots developing while traveling is low, but
increases as travel increases. If you have risk factors for blood clots
and you’re concerned about traveling, talk with your doctor.

Your doctor might suggest the following to help prevent blood clots during travel:

  • Drink plenty of fluids. Water is the best
    liquid for preventing dehydration, which can contribute to the
    development of blood clots. Avoid alcohol, which contributes to fluid
    loss.
  • Take a break from sitting. Move around the
    airplane cabin once an hour or so. If you’re driving, stop every hour
    and walk around the car a couple of times. Do a few deep knee bends.
  • Fidget in your seat. Flex your ankles every 15 to 30 minutes.
  • Wear support stockings. Your doctor may
    recommend these to help promote circulation and fluid movement in your
    legs. Compression stockings are available in a range of stylish colors
    and textures. There are even devices, called stocking butlers, to help
    you put on the stockings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Who Should Decide the Fate of YourTerminally Ill Child

We have all heard of the tragic case of 23 months old Alfie Evans. Alfie was born in may of 2016 and December 2016 he was admitted to the  Alder Hey Children’s Hospital in Liverpool England suffering seizures and has been a patient in the hospital until his death April 28 2018

Alfie was diagnosed with a  degenerative neurological condition, which they have not been able to identify definitively.

Alfie’s parents and the hospital were in complete disagreement in what should happen to Alfie who was in a semi vegetated state for almost a year

The problem between Alfie parents  and the Doctors at Alder Hey children hospital started when the Doctors decided to with draw life support from Alfie as the they deemed it useless as there was no hope to cure Alfie and his death was imminent

The Alder Hey Children’s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust went to the High Court to seek a declaration that continued ventilator support was not in Alfie’s best interest in the circumstance it was not lawful that such treatment be continued

Mr Justice Hayden said doctors could stop providing life support for Alfie against his parents’ wishes, saying the child required “peace, quiet and privacy”.

Of course the parents wanted treatment to be continued and wanted to take Alfie to another hospital in Italy the  Bambino Gesu Hospital in Rome in the hope of prolonging his life.whose Doctors thought that they could perform surgery that would help him to live for a undefined period This petition of the parents was denied by the Alder Hey Children hospital

Alfie’s father believed that his son was improving because he responded tho him ant he wanted every thing tried to save his son

But Michael Mylonas QC, representing the hospital, said: “One of the theproblems of this case is Alfie’s parents look at him and, barring the paraphernalia of breathing and feeding, he’s a sweet, lovely, normal-looking boy who opens his eyes, and will smile. The hospital asserted that any movements by the child were “spontaneous seizures as a result of touching”.

Mr Justice Hayden ruled in favor of hospital bosses and doctors were set to withdraw ventilation on February 23 before his parents decided to take legal action

On  March 20, Alfie’s parents appealed to the Supreme Court where justices refuse to give Alfie’s parents permission to  enter another appeal

Alfie’s parents and their lawyers went to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) after exhausting all legal avenues in the UK.

But three judges ruled the submission “inadmissible”, saying they were unable to find any violation of human rights.

On April 11, Mr Justice Hayden then endorsed an end-of-life care plan  for Alfie. setting a date to switch off life support. This time the parents of Alfie were represented by a group CLC (Christian legal center) but every appeal on behalf Alfi’s parent was denied Alfie father even went to Rome to meet with  Pope Francis  to plead the Pope intervention in the hopes of saving his son but the ppe,s pitition was turned down.

The Italian Government granted citizenship to enable Alfie to travel to Italy without any problem but this effort was dismissed by the British Courts Mr Justice Hayden who stated that “Alfie is a British citizen” who “falls therefore under the

jurisdiction of the High Court”. Even after all denials to their effort to get their son treatment they did stop trying.

Alfie’s parents then launched a further appeal against the order stopping them from taking him to Italy, which was heard on Wednesday afternoon by a panel of three Court of Appeal judges, headed by Sir Andrew McFarlane.

The judges upheld a ruling preventing the 23-month-old from traveling abroad after life support was withdrawn. Finally Alfie died an April 28 2018.   This leaves me to think Who  should have the right to decide what is the right thing for their child.

As a parent I would want to do everything possible for my child. I know when we see our child suffering we sometimes have difficulty in making the right  decisions because we become too emotional but then who is best to make these heart rending decisions.

One of the dilemmas Alfie’s case raised is whether doctors are the right people to determine if withdrawing life-support treatment is in “the best interests” of a terminally ill child.

One of the key arguments presented by his parents was that they should decide what is best for their son

What do you think  Should the government make this decision or may be a family member. let me know your thoughts leave me a comment

 

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